17 Greatest Electrolyte Water Manufacturers | Greatest Bottled Water With Electrolytes

Do you ever want you could possibly step up your hydration recreation, however really feel hindered since you’re sick of ingesting plain water all day? Properly, you’re in luck as a result of right this moment you’re going to be taught the most effective electrolyte water manufacturers and greatest bottled water with electrolytes from a professional sports activities dietitian.

Reaching sufficient hydration every day is less complicated than you may suppose. The hot button is discovering the drinks that work to your tastebuds, but in addition your general well being. 

As a sports activities diet observe, we’ve made it our mission to assist our shoppers discover drinks that really style good, improve restoration, AND don’t include inflammatory elements. (Which, these days is far simpler stated than performed!)

Prepare as we dive into not solely the most effective electrolyte water manufacturers, but in addition the most effective bottled water with electrolytes, the most effective electrolytes for decent yoga, the most effective electrolyte dietary supplements for athletes, the most effective electrolyte drink for climbing, and the most effective electrolyte tablets for climbing! Make sure you learn to the tip as lots of our high picks will shock you.

What are Electrolytes and Why Do They Matter?

First issues first, let’s begin with the fundamentals: what are electrolytes and why do they matter?

Electrolytes like sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and magnesium are necessary minerals used for important capabilities within the physique. Electrolytes are crucial for optimum human perform, particularly on the subject of those that are bodily lively. 

Satisfactory electrolytes are vital for correct hydration, muscle contraction, transferring vitamins into our cells, transferring waste out, and sustaining the right acid/base ranges.[1]

Electrolytes are primarily misplaced by sweat and urine, nevertheless, vomiting and diarrhea may contribute to their loss.

When you find yourself not consuming sufficient electrolytes, it’s possible you’ll discover fatigue, complications, muscle cramping, blood stress adjustments, and nausea. A few of my athletes even expertise vomiting when they don’t eat sufficient electrolytes to assist train calls for.

What Standards Determine the Greatest Electrolyte Water Manufacturers?

In the case of selecting the most effective electrolyte water manufacturers and the most effective electrolytes for athletes, we don’t depend on stunning labels and fruity flavors. As a substitute, we search for the next standards: 

  1. The Golden Rule: Clear elements. We don’t advocate or assist using synthetic dyes, sweeteners and different inflammatory elements…and nor do you have to! Our purpose is to not blow up your immune system as you rehydrate. 
  1. third Parting Testing.  Whereas many hydration drinks are thought of meals merchandise and subsequently regulated by the FDA, there are different drinks which are thought of sport dietary supplements.

For these which are thought of extra of a sport complement, you will need to be your personal advocate and make sure the product has been third-party examined or licensed. Because of this an impartial group has reviewed the manufacturing strategy of a product and has independently decided that the ultimate product complies with particular efficiency, high quality, and security requirements. 

Merchandise which were third-party licensed can have a certification stamp displayed on the label from the certification firm.

  1. High quality Sourcing of Components. The place did this firm supply the water and different principal elements? Are any of the elements natural? Are they supporting native firms or farmers, if potential? Is there caffeine, and if that’s the case, the place is it coming from, a pure supply like inexperienced tea or one thing man-made in a manufacturing unit? Is the pH pretty low? In that case, this limits the expansion of micro organism. 

Essentially the most clear firms can have this info proper on their web site or will be capable of present solutions inside minutes of a fast telephone name.

  1. Nice Style: It have to be palatable when you find yourself scorching, sweaty, and dealing your tail off. In any other case, may it actually be greatest bottled water with electrolytes?!

The Greatest Electrolyte Water Manufacturers & The Greatest Bottled Water With Electrolytes

Inquisitive about the most effective electrolyte water manufacturers or maybe the most effective electrolytes for athletes? Take a look at the record beneath of our tried and examined high picks!

While you hear the phrase “greatest electrolyte water manufacturers,” do you mechanically consider Jennifer Aniston sipping on a refreshing bottle of Good Water? If not, then you must! True electrolyte water is basically water infused with electrolytes. 

If you happen to got here to this publish in search of, fairly actually, the most effective electrolyte water manufacturers or primarily, the most effective bottled water with electrolytes, take a look at the record beneath:

1. Essentia Alkaline Water

Box and bottle of Essentia Water- one of the best electrolyte water brands
  • Essentia is high tier on the subject of electrolyte-infused water. Essentia is ionized alkaline water. In primary phrases, Essentia is without doubt one of the most pure and nutrient dense electrolyte waters on the water. First, it’s purified by reverse osmosis, making it 99.9{1c8bf58ee34fe376d8f3e770c311875602ee531d627fc6ae019d93433626f2b6} pure and free of poisons. Subsequent, it’s infused with hint quantities of electrolytes and acidic ions are eliminated, offering a pH of 9.5. This makes the water very alkaline (not primary) and straightforward for our our bodies to soak up. 
Bottle and case of blk. Natural Mineral Alkaline Water, one of the top electrolyte brands

2. blk. Natural Mineral Alkaline Water

  • All of the cool youngsters are ingesting blk., and for good cause. Not solely is it distinctive to be ingesting black water, however blk. touts final hydration by providing fulvic enhanced, all-natural mineral water. There are a number of taste choices in addition to an unflavored possibility. So, in case you are in search of taste along with purified water with electrolytes and excessive alkalinity for greatest absorption, blk. is the winner.

3. Vita Coco (Coconut Water)

Bottle and box of Vita Coco Coconut Water, a great electrolyte water supplement
  • Desire a little bit taste and pure sugar while you hydrate? Take a look at this reward from nature, Vita Coco’s Coconut Water. This scrumptious beverage presents naturally occurring electrolytes like potassium and magnesium. Maybe what we admire above all although, is the truth that this firm works laborious to assist small farmers and makes a significant effort to provide again to these in want.

4. Smart Water

Case of Smartwater Vapor Distilled Premium Water Bottles. Smartwater is one of the best bottled water brands.
  • The unique OG of electrolyte waters is Good Water. It was born in 1996 however made uber standard in recent times by Hollywood. Good Water is vapor distilled with added electrolytes. Since 2019, the model now presents an alkaline, antioxidant, and calmly flavored variations.
Two bottles of DEFY Ionized Alkaline pH9.5+ Water, some of the best bottled water with electrolytes

5. Defy Ionized Alkaline Water

  • Welcome to high-performance ionized, alkaline water. Personally, that is our favourite tasting electrolyte-enhanced water. Whereas many different firms make the identical claims, like ionization and a pH of 9.5, we really feel Defy has the smoothest style. 

Can’t lie, we additionally love that their facility is photo voltaic powered AND 3 cents of each bottle bought is donated to varied charities! The one cause this was not our #1 decide is as a result of it’s usually not as available at your common grocery retailer than our prior choices.

And now you could have our high 5 picks for the most effective bottled water with electrolytes. 

Disclaimer for all of the super-health nuts (like us!) on the market: We aren’t encouraging continuously ingesting out of plastic. Nevertheless, we perceive how handy it may be and on the finish of the day, we would like you to be hydrated, even when it means utilizing plastic. However hey, should you’d actually prefer to be a star. We extremely advocate this water bottle made of borosilicate glass which is what we personally use about 98{1c8bf58ee34fe376d8f3e770c311875602ee531d627fc6ae019d93433626f2b6} of the tie and refill day by day from the reverse osmosis filter in our house. You’ll be able to at all times switch your drink to this fabulous glass container too!!

Greatest Electrolytes for Athletes & Heavy Sweaters

Now, let’s say you’re not sedentary, however you’re not precisely on the level the place you want a boatload of sodium and potassium to rehydrate correctly. In that case, NOOMA’s Natural Sports activities Drinks are the proper segway between straight-up electrolyte water and an electrolyte-enhanced sports activities drink. 

NOOMA Natural Sports activities Drinks – Our Favourite Natural Electrolyte Drink for Athletes (Greatest for These Who’re NOT Heavy Sweaters)

Cans of NOOMA Organic Electrolyte Sports Drink, the best electrolytes for athletes

Some could think about these snazzy little drinks a sports activities drink, however with filtered water and coconut water as the bottom, we think about NOOMA’s Organic Sports Drinks the final word electrolyte water. Right here’s why:

  • Natural, plant-based, zero added sugar, the proper mix of electrolytes for mild exercise and nice taste!!
  • One of many solely firms so as to add adaptogens for further immune and restoration assist

Need to give these dangerous boys a attempt? Here is NOOMA’s link should you’d prefer to be taught extra. As a token of our appreciation for studying our content material, think about using our affiliate code FWDFUEL at checkout which supplies 30{1c8bf58ee34fe376d8f3e770c311875602ee531d627fc6ae019d93433626f2b6} off your first buy!!

For these of you who’re shaking your head considering no, that’s not in any respect what I need. I need the most effective electrolyte-infused rehydration drinks for lively people, then carry on readin’ as a result of that’s what we have now up subsequent. 

The very best electrolyte water manufacturers listed above and the bottled water with electrolytes that we beforehand mentioned can be greatest for individuals who aren’t extraordinarily lively however are nonetheless trying to assist their day by day hydration wants. They’d even be nice for individuals who’re trying to rehydrate with some electrolytes after a very nice sauna session.

The electrolyte-wealthy rehydration drinks beneath are greatest for individuals who are very lively and those that spend a variety of time within the warmth. That is when yo want greater than only a little bit of a high off to your hydration and electrolytes.

Relying on their sweat price and composition, I’ve had gardeners and building employees for shoppers who have been in additional critical want of electrolyte assist, simply as a lot as a few of my highschool, collegiate, and professional athletes.

Box of SKRATCH Labs sachet hydration electrolyte packets for athletes

I digress; right here is my record of high electrolyte water manufacturers, and by that, I truly imply greatest electrolyte rehydration drinks for heavy sweaters:

1. Skratch Labs Hydration Mix

  • Fairly presumably the fan-favorite throughout the board with reference to taste,  thus making it very easy to need to drink when you find yourself scorching and sweaty.
  • Comprises precise carbohydrates (not a load of zero-calorie sweeteners) wanted to gasoline muscle along with a average dose of electrolytes.
  • Nice number of flavors.
  • Digests nicely.

Good for individuals who want hydration assist along with carbohydrate consumption. This tends to be one among our high picks for endurance athletes.  A wonderful alternative for individuals who favor to not carry or eat throughout longer runs, rides, or coaching periods.

LMNT sachet packets, great way to get electrolytes while fasting

2. LMNT Electrolyte Powder Packets

Get able to see LMNT all all through this publish, because it occurs to be our favourite high-dose electrolyte beverage and the one we personally use most frequently.

  • Why? It tastes nice (particularly when icy chilly). 
  • LMNT offers an awesome selection of unique flavors like Watermelon Salt and Mango Habanero.
  • LMNT accommodates 60mg of magnesium,  200mg of potassium, and 1,000 mg of sodium, excellent for our big-time sweaters.

Good for main sweaters who’re susceptible to cramping and would like to not have any added sugar.

Box and sachet packets of Drip Drop Electrolytes

3. Drip Drop and Drip Drop Zero

Drip Drop ZERO hydration bag and sachet
  • This refreshing beverage presents a pleasant combo of average electrolytes, zero added sugar or common sugar, sooner rehydration time, and key nutritional vitamins for immune assist.
  • Basic flavors and all-natural elements. Goes down very simply.
  • Offers average rehydration at 330mg sodium, 189 mg potassium, and 35 mg magnesium

Good for individuals who fall within the center vary of not critical crampers however want greater than your common sports activities drink.

Box of Biosteel Hydration mix sachets which are a great electrolytes for athletes

4. Biosteel Hydration Mix

  • For many who grew up on Kool-Help, this will likely be your favourite!
  • Extraordinarily candy and flavorful (with out added sugar- zero calorie sweetener is used.)
  • A enjoyable assortment of flavors like grape and blue raspberry – minus any bizarre meals coloring!
  • The mega-dose of B Nutritional vitamins and Amino Acids on this combine is superb if you’d like an vitality increase with none caffeine.
  • Is available in a bathtub or moveable packets.

Good for individuals who love intense taste, don’t sweat profusely, and would like an vitality increase with none caffeine.

Jar of Thorne Catalyte flavored electrolytes

5. Catalye by Thorne

  • Say hi there to one of the crucial complete however low-dose electrolyte blends.
  • Skilled grade, third-party examined.
  • Good for individuals who want a little bit further hydration assist earlier than and through bodily exercise.
  • PS. You can find it for 20{1c8bf58ee34fe376d8f3e770c311875602ee531d627fc6ae019d93433626f2b6} off right here on Wellevate, the place we purchase all our dietary supplements. While you ????create your account for Wellevate with our link????, the low cost is mechanically utilized, and you should utilize it to purchase any complement. The very best factor is, costs for dietary supplements on Wellevate are higher than wherever, even Amazon, and it can save you a great deal of ????????????y shopping for off there all whereas getting increased high quality dietary supplements and customer support.

Good for individuals who are mild sweaters, or in search of a extra complete mix that additionally consists of nutritional vitamins/minerals for immune and muscle assist.

Are There Electrolytes in Purple Bull?

I at all times chuckle a little bit inside when my athletes ask, “are there electrolytes in Purple Bull?” as a result of I do know deep down it’s their approach of justifying repeat consumption of an vitality drink.

Purple Bull doesn’t truly include electrolytes. Purple Bull accommodates a panel of B Nutritional vitamins, in addition to taurine, an amino acid that may be useful for vitality however, once more, no electrolytes.

Now to be ultra-precise right here, certain, you’ll discover a little bit magnesium carbonate and calcium pantothenate within the ingredient record. Nevertheless, it’s not sufficient to replenish electrolyte shops after or throughout exercise.

And, for the report, even when Purple Bull did include ample electrolytes, I’d by no means advocate one thing loaded with chemical sweeteners. Too many analysis research have come out proving the harm of long-term consumption. [2,3,4,]

I can’t have you ever unknowingly eat one thing that decreases the nice micro organism in your intestine and promotes irritation! (Okay, sure, I do know the unique Purple Bull accommodates desk sugar however why drink synthetic colours and sub-optimal elements while you don’t must anymore?)

A fast enjoyable truth whereas we’re on the subject. It’s a fable that Purple Bull’s caffeine content material will make your coronary heart cease. It accommodates 80mg per serving which is principally a normal cup of espresso.

Okay, now grasp on. Don’t panic but, all you little Purple Bull worshipers. I’ve a significantly better various for you.

If you’re in search of a caffeine increase with ample electrolytes, I’d extremely advocate the brand Pureboost. Pureboost is without doubt one of the solely manufacturers available on the market with pure elements, permitting you to actually really feel energized vs. jittery and anxious.

A serving of Pureboost offers 100 mg of natural caffeine sourced from inexperienced tea, a load of antioxidants, and electrolytes resembling sodium, potassium, and magnesium. In truth, Pureboost accommodates a better magnesium focus than simply about any hydration beverage available on the market.  To not point out 2 servings present 100{1c8bf58ee34fe376d8f3e770c311875602ee531d627fc6ae019d93433626f2b6} of your Day by day Worth of 9 important nutritional vitamins, together with Vitamin C and B12.

Please take into account that magnesium is a crucial mineral within the human physique. It’s answerable for over 300 enzymatic reactions…and most of us are poor! Subsequently, getting a little bit magnesium wherever we are able to is actually useful for long-term well being. And why not ingest it accompanied by a little bit pure caffeine surge?

The Greatest Electrolytes for Scorching Yoga

Consumer: “Man, I cramped once more throughout scorching yoga right this moment, do you could have any suggestions for me? Is there such a factor as the most effective electrolytes for decent yoga?”

Me: “Did you sweat a ton however solely drink water earlier than and throughout the session?”

Consumer: “Sure, precisely!! How do you know!?”

This state of affairs is extremely frequent. Excellent news, although: should you’re susceptible to cramping and also you’re additionally into scorching yoga, there may be a straightforward resolution!

Enhance your electrolyte consumption BEFORE and throughout the session, and ensure that your alternative has an ample quantity of sodium. Consuming solely water or ready till after the session to eat electrolytes is just too late. You need to have a little bit gasoline within the system, so to talk, earlier than you run it to empty.

Whereas sweat price composition is genetic, usually talking, sodium is the electrolyte that we are likely to lose probably the most of after we are sweating buckets throughout strenuous or tremendous scorching exercise.

Sadly, on this specific case, electrolyte water just isn’t sufficient. Listed here are my high two picks for my sweat monsters on the market:

Bag of liquid IV electrolyte replacement powder

Choice A: Liquid IV Hydration Multiplier is a good tasting (fan favourite, I’d say), well-rounded electrolyte beverage. With 500 mg of sodium, 370 mg of potassium, and a pleasant little supportive panel of C and B nutritional vitamins, that is excellent for my average sweaters who really feel they’re on the verge of cramping when performing strenuous exercise. Make sure you eat earlier than and through bodily exercise, particularly within the warmth.

LMNT sachet packets, great way to get electrolytes while doing hot yoga

Choice B: LMNT Electrolyte Powder Packets. This scrumptious, all-natural, tremendous salty, but refreshing beverage is ideal for my peeps who sweat profusely and have a tendency to cramp massive time. In case your scorching yoga periods are 90 minutes, it is a no-brainer. When somebody particularly asks me what are the most effective electrolytes for decent yoga? LMNT is my reply.

I’d counsel dumping a packet in water and sipping slowly for 60 minutes earlier than your scorching yoga session. Or, begin with half a packet Half-hour earlier than the session after which slowly sip on the remaining all through the session. 

When you’ve got a delicate abdomen and you’re feeling a little bit sloshy in your abdomen with all of the twists and turns, you’re higher off getting it performed earlier than train. 

Fast Professional Tip: One serving accommodates 1,000 mg of sodium, 200 mg of potassium, and 60 mg of magnesium. Subsequently, this isn’t a beverage that you’ll simply chug for enjoyable whereas hanging round the home. I’d solely eat this strategically round strenuous exercise.

What’s the Greatest Approach to Get Electrolytes Whereas Fasting

As you may guess, it’s extremely necessary to eat electrolytes when your physique is in a quick state. Since you aren’t consuming meals, we should make sure the mind, coronary heart, and muscular tissues have what they should proceed chugging alongside efficiently.

So, what’s the easiest way to get electrolytes whereas fasting, particularly while you’re an lively feminine fasting with choosy style buds? 

There are two main elements to think about on this case: We need to be sure the product accommodates 0g of carbohydrate and a average to excessive quantity of key electrolytes resembling sodium, potassium, and magnesium. That is often an unflavored product.

That is necessary to recollect when researching manufacturers and studying labels as a result of sure manufacturers will often solely have one or two particular blends that match these standards. 

If you happen to are likely to quick for longer intervals of time (and we’re NOT essentially telling you to do that), you have to even increased quantities of electrolytes. So, for instance, 100mg of sodium per serving received’t reduce it, however 500-1000mg will.

The longer you quick, the much less stool you should have in your physique. On this scenario, water will go proper by your physique, leading to dehydration nearly instantly. Subsequently the longer you quick, the better the necessity for electrolytes. There may be nothing (stool) to gradual the passing of electrolytes for higher absorption.

Take a look at our favourite electrolyte dietary supplements throughout fasting:

LMNT sachet packets

1.  LMNT Electrolyte Powder Packets

  • Okay, okay, you recognize by now that that is one among our absolute favorites, however it’s crucial when fasting due to the higher-power electrolyte mix: 1,000 mg sodium, 200 mg potassium, and 60 mg magnesium. This makes LMNT our high decide for longer fasts.
  • No synthetic sweeteners or rubbish within the elements.
  • Moveable packets vs. an enormous tub to haul and messily scoop.
  • However learn your labels! Only some of the flavors have <1 g of carbohydrate. Watermelon Salt is a great option should you favor a little bit style and nonetheless need to stay quick. If you’re in search of a 100{1c8bf58ee34fe376d8f3e770c311875602ee531d627fc6ae019d93433626f2b6} clear quick, the LMNT Raw Unflavored is by far your best choice.

FYI, most individuals will keep fasted with any of the LMNT merchandise as they’re 2g carbohydrate or much less per serving, however if you wish to play it ultra-safe, Watermelon Salt and Raw Unflavored are what we recommend gravitating in direction of.

2. Redmond Re-Lyte Electrolyte Drink Mix

  • Unflavored, high-potency electrolytes!
  • Zero carbs or faux elements
  • More cost effective possibility.
  • Comprises extremely absorbable types of electrolytes- even actual sea salt!
  • Bonus provide: If you happen to completely can’t drink down the excessive sodium, unflavored concoction, Redmond offers electrolyte capsules at 400 mg sodium, 200 mg potassium, and 25 mg magnesium. And actually, typically capsules are the easiest way to get electrolytes whereas fasting, irrespective of who you’re or how a lot you prefer to drink just because its handy and moveable.

What are your favourite electrolyte dietary supplements throughout fasting? Tell us if there’s something we missed!

The Greatest Electrolyte Drink for Mountaineering & The Greatest Electrolyte Tablets For Mountaineering

Mountaineering can take a toll on the physique. If you happen to should not have the precise electrolyte drink or the most effective electrolyte tablets whereas climbing, you may end up in a foul scenario.  So, with out additional ado, listed below are our high picks for the most effective electrolyte drink for climbing and the most effective electrolyte tablets for climbing.

The Greatest Electrolyte Drink for Mountaineering

Box of SKRATCH Labs sachet hydration electrolyte packets for athletes

In our opinion, the most effective electrolyte drink for climbing is…

  • Scratch Labs Hydration Drink Mix
    • As talked about above, Skratch tends to be the most effective electrolyte drink for climbing as a result of it tastes nice and was designed to most carefully mimic our physique’s pure sweat price composition.  

Most significantly, although, for hikers, Skratch accommodates carbohydrates, thus making it much less crucial to haul round meals along with an electrolyte drink. The lighter your load, the higher, proper?

LMNT sachet packets
  • LMNT Hydration Packets
    • Once more, LMNT makes the record, however this time, for our hikers who sweat profusely and or for our hikers who spend hours within the warmth. LMNT accommodates 1,000 mg sodium, 200mg potassium, and 60mg magnesium, one of the crucial highly effective blends available on the market. Make sure you sip earlier than and through strenuous hikes.

Professional Tip:  If you happen to see white drying in your garments or your sweat actually burns when it will get in your eyes, LMNT was made for you!

  • https://amzn.to/3OwZHe4SaltStick FASTCHEWS
    • Are you a light-weight sweater? Searching for one thing rather less within the carb and electrolyte division? Maybe you like to not gulp liquid as a result of it sloshes in your abdomen. In that case, SaltStick FASTCHEWS is the proper resolution. Chew 1-2 tablets each 15-Half-hour throughout bodily exercise to assist assist gentle sweat loss.

The Greatest Electrolyte Tablets For Mountaineering

Not a fan of blending powder into liquid when climbing? Too messy and inconvenient? We hear you!

In our opinion, the most effective electrolyte tablets for  climbing are as follows:

  • Nuun Sport is our favorite electrolyte-rich pill.
    • Why? It tastes nice, doesn’t include any synthetic elements, and is Licensed Kosher, Vegan, and Gluten Free. 
  • NOW Effer-Hydrate Effervescent Hydration Tablets
    • If you happen to take pleasure in a little bit sparkle together with your sip, NOW makes a superb electrolyte pill for the average sweater who craves carbonation. The electrolyte profile nearly matches Nuun’s to a tee. Your choice will come all the way down to style desire as each include roughly 300 mg sodium, ~ 100mg potassium, and ~20 mg magnesium.
  • Precision Hydration Ph 1500
    • Precision hydration tablets are the true MVP for my tremendous sweaty hikers. The PH 1500 tablets, particularly, include 750 mg of sodium, 20 mg of calcium, 130 mg of potassium, and 10mg of magnesium- nearly double the profile of NOW and Nuun’s electrolyte tablets. Good for these susceptible to cramping and fatigue as this mix supplies a better increase of replenishment than your common tabs.

Properly, there we have now it, people; that concludes our high information to the most effective electrolyte water manufacturers. We hope you aren’t solely strolling away higher knowledgeable of the most effective electrolyte water manufacturers but in addition the most effective electrolyte dietary supplements for athletes and the most effective electrolytes for decent yoga, climbing, and fasting. If you happen to loved this publish, you should definitely take a look at our posts on the most effective glutathione dietary supplements, the highest grass-fed whey protein powders, and the most effective protein bars.

Most significantly, what’s your favourite electrolyte model? We’d love to listen to your ideas within the feedback beneath.

References

  1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31082167/
  2. https://diabetesjournals.org/care/article/36/9/2530/37872/Sucralose-Impacts-Glycemic-and-Hormonal-Responses
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5522834/
  4. *https://www.sciencefocus.com/information/artificial-sweeteners-can-turn-healthy-gut-bacteria-into-pathogens/